Here in NB you just need your license, insurance, and the bike to be plated for road use. Those looking to get their motorcycle license need to take the equivalent of the MSF course ($400), then do at written test at the motor vehicle office. You then get a graduated license; essentially the same as a kid getting his learners permit..can't ride after sunset, can't carry a passenger, zero blood alcohol on the bike, and can't pull a trailer. After a year with the graduated license, you go and do your road test with the driver examiners following you and telling you what to do via 1-way radio. After passing that you have your 'full' license.
No yearly safety inspections on bikes, so nobody has those ugly fork stickers or placards.
As for riding off road...that's a farce...sort of. The majority of New Brunswick (Canada) is woods, but there is no bike trail system. There are official 'managed' trails through the provincial ATV federation, and maintained (grading, dozing, bridges over running water, etc) by the area ATV clubs. 2-wheeled bikes are not permitted on an official, managed ATV trail..subject to fine by the OREO's...the Off Road Enforcement Offers, a part of the RCMP cruising the trails on ATVs and snowmobiles. There is also a network of managed snowmobile trails, open to use by anyone through spring/summer/fall (until around the middle of December when they start grooming). After that point, anyone not a snowmobile can be fined, or more likely, beaten and left in the woods for dead by pissed off snowmobilers. It sounds great that anyone can run the snowmobile trails in the off season, but because of the fact that they're 'trails' when there's snow and ice over them, they often pass right through the middle of bogs...also, rocky and rough trails that would just beat you to death.
The ATV federation use a $100/year pass system for their managed trails. The snowmobile federation has a pass system, more expensive for most but the price drops with the age of your sled.
You cannot buy a trail pass for the ATV trails for a 2-wheeled bike. The clubs won't sell you one even though they're always crying hard times. Even if a club did actually sell one, the OREOs have stated in no uncertain terms that a motorcycle does not fit the definition of 'an ATV' in the act, and will fine you.
The ATV federation won't share their trails with the snowmobile federation, so there are usually trails in the woods running somewhat parallel to each other or at least ending up at the same place...ATVs only on one, sleds only on the other..and each of the federations running their own groomers day and night. The ATV federation won't allow motorcycles on their ATV trails even though they say they can't afford groomer fuel, even though there are tons of dual sport and dirt bike riders that would drop the $100 for a pass for their trails in a heartbeat.
All that said, pretty much the rest of the trails are fair game. There are no OHV parks or 'state forests' that you have to pay a fee to enter and ride. Crown land is open to everyone, with small exceptions like newly lumbered and reforested areas being gated off. People around here are pretty good about land use, and the only big plots of private land that's usually posted No Trespassing is placed where people are actively working, cutting wood, etc.
My rule of thumb when finding a little 'Hmmm, I wonder what's down there?" road or trail is, if there's no sign, chain, gate, or rope across it, and it doesn't have a civic number sign by the road, it's open to go explore.
I can't complain...the trails that are closed to bikes because they're managed ATV trails are a tiny drop in the bucket if you look at the amount of trails and dirt/lumber roads that are wide open for riding.
I just really can't understand why the ATV and sled federations can't play together...share the trails and share the grooming in the winter.